Doctoral candidates defend their dissertations in a public defence. Before this, the dissertation is pre-examined by two independent experts in the field who are selected outside the university, usually abroad.
A ceremonial conferment of degrees is organized for graduated doctors. This is an academic celebration, in which doctorates and honorary doctorates in different fields are conferred. The tradition behind the ceremonial conferment is that new graduates and doctors are introduced and accepted as full members of their scientific community.