2/2024. Featuring presentations of master's theses from the Master's Programme in Geoengineering
Entrance to the rock engineering laboratory.
Picture: Unto Rautio

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Programme 16.2.2024

The length of each presentation is 15 minutes, with an additional 5 minutes reserved for discussion.

  • 14:00-14.20 : Ida-Maria Savila: Lifting samples of deep stabilization and strength comparison of the results with the results of quality control
  • 14:20-14.40 : Otto Kaukoranta : Vähähiilinen syvästabilointi ja hankintamenettelyt (Thesis in Finnish) 
  • 14.40-15.00: Cassandra af Hällström: Optimization of an iterative tunnel design through the application of dynamic and parametric modelling

Prof. Wojciech Solowski, Director of the Master's Programme in Geoengineering

Theses presented

Lifting samples of deep stabilization and strength comparison of the results with the results of quality control

Author: Ida-Maria Savila
Supervisor:  Leena Korkiala-Tanttu


Vähähiilinen pilaristabilointi ja hankintamenettelyt (Thesis in Finnish)

Author: Otto Kaukoranta
Supervisor: Leena Korkiala-Tanttu
Advisor(s): Juha Forsman, Liisa Taskila

Deep stabilization volumes have increased greatly in Finland since the introduction of the method. Reducing emissions from deep stabilization is a significant part of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from foundation construction. Emissions can be reduced, for example, by favoring low-carbon binder recipes. The use of these can be promoted with the low-carbon classifications of deep stabilization developed in the UUMA4 program. The goal of this work is to promote the introduction of low-carbon classifications in the procurement of deep stabilization.

This work presents the combining of deep stabilization low-carbon classifications with various procurement models, as well as example reviews of the use of low-carbon classifications. As part of the work, stabilization pillars were raised in the trial stabilization area of Helsinki Malminkenttä to examine the condition of their upper ends.

The studies carried out in the field included, among other things, pillar drilling, raising the upper sections of the pillars, determining the variation of the binder distribution in the cross section of the pillars (pH, NITON, penetrometer) and the diffusion of the binder around the pillar. The city of Helsinki, Stara and Ramboll were mainly responsible for the field studies. Samples were taken from the raised pillars and the clay surrounding them for laboratory studies. The studies included, among other things, compression tests and water content measurements. Aalto University and Ramboll were mainly responsible for the laboratory studies. Reporting other than penetrometer results is not included in this work.

Based on the quality control drillings, strength-emission figures were formed for the binders at 3 and 12 months of age. Based on the figures, it was found that strength per emissions produced similar results despite the different emission coefficients of the binders. This can be explained by the higher strengths achieved with higher emission coefficient binders.

Based on the results of quality control drilling and stabilization tests, two example reviews were made of the use of the low-carbon classification of deep stabilization binders (SSV) and the low-carbon classification of deep stabilization pillars (SPV). For the inspections, the amounts of binder were optimized to achieve the target strength. Based on the reviews, it was found that the total emissions of deep stabilization can be significantly affected by determining the appropriate SSV and/or SPV category. With the optimized amounts of binders, the emission reduction between binders of the highest and lowest SSV class was approximately 70%.

Optimization of an iterative tunnel design through the application of dynamic and parametric modelling.

Author: Cassandra af Hällström
Supervisor: professor Mikael Rinne
Advisor(s): M.Sc. Jarmo Roinisto
Funding: Rockplan


Building Information Modelling, or BIM, is a model-based construction process that is extensively utilized by many civil engineering disciplines, while its adoption in rock engineering design is less established. Widened BIM practice has led to increased supply of BIM supplementing techniques such as parametric and dynamic modelling. This study examines how parametric and dynamic BIM tools can be developed and applied in hard rock tunnel modelling, when an underground air energy storage is used as a case study. The study is realised with modelling software Civil 3D and its featured interfaces Subassembly Composer and Dynamo, as well as Rhino 7 and its graphical algorithm editor Grasshopper. Final modelling tools comprise of a dynamic tunnel baseline layout with parametrically adjustable access tunnel profiles and air storage cavern geometries. Also, an initial data material model with rock quality and water permeability drill core data is developed, as well as a parametric tunnel reinforcement design tool with complementary quantity calculations. All target tool types could be developed that functioned in accordance with desired tool performance. A successful modelling process could be achieved, and the tunnel design was optimised in terms of minimal use of reinforcement, excavation volumes, and consequently also cost and environmental influence. Software comparison and tool evaluation showed that Civil 3D was found most promising for tunnel layout design, whereas initial data material visualisation and reinforcement modelling was more beneficial to carry out in Rhino. However, results from Civil 3D plug-in Dynamo testing were insufficient and may have affected the final conclusions. Tool development was considered strenuous, but the tools showed high value in design due to their convenient and quick modification features, and potential for future application and redevelopment. Parametric features were considered prolific for modelling large-scale and repetitive patterns, which are characteristic features for tunnels. Also, involved stakeholders were presumed to comprehend design change consequences and solutions better with parametric BIM visualisation. Parametric and dynamic modelling may be implemented in all design stages where BIM is approved for use but was found most applicable in the feasibility study stage.

Geoengineering master's theses
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