Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling

The research and teaching at the Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modeling research group focuses experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic modeling of metallurgical processes, mainly related to extractive pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy from primary and secondary resources.
Aalto University/Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling

Our research areas:

1. Study of chemical reactions, phase equilibria & elemental distribution in existing and new metallurgical processes:

  • Primary ore feeds become leaner and more complex

  • New feeds (E-scrap, WEEE, recycled batteries

2. Development of Process models, calculational tools & thermochemical databases for pyro- and hydrometallurgical processes

3. Study of large industrial processes on a very detailed level through laboratory studies and modeling, Including non-metallurgical processes (e.g. biomass combustion, waste incineration, high-T corrosion)

The Group is responsible for teaching and research in metallurgical thermodynamics. 

The research projects focus on experimental thermodynamics. We utilize experimental techniques, such as equilibration-quenching, EMF measurements, high-temperature furnace treatments to study phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of metallurgical slags, mattes, and alloys.

We also utilize and develop advanced thermodynamic modeling databases and software for modelling and equilibrium calculations in close cooperation with industrial partners within the field of metallurgical engineering. The industrial projects deal with metal-making processes in the areas of liquid and solid phases (e.g. flash smelting, roasting of sulphides, and salts decomposition by the fluidized bed technology).

The Group is establishing National Centre of Thermodynamics, in cooperation with external partners: we collaborate closely also with universities in Finland, the Nordic countries, South Africa, Canada, China and Indonesia.


Ongoing projects:

Finland-based Circular Ecosystem of Battery Metals, BATCircle

Led by Aalto University, the Finland based circular ecosystem of battery metals consortium (BATCircle in short) aims at improving the manufacturing processes of mining industry, metals industry and battery chemicals, and to increase the recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Its goal is to strengthen the cooperation between companies and research organisations in Finland, and to find new business opportunities.

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Symbiosis of metals production and nature, SYMMET

There is currently not enough mining capacity to meet the demand for metals while the use of renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, and electro-mobility is increasing. The Symbiosis of Metals Production and Nature (SYMMET) project’s objective is to find solutions for the sustainability gap caused by the ever-increasing demand for metals.

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Predicting the FLow behavior of ASH mixtures for production of transport biofuels in the circular economy

Professori Daniel Lindberg, kuva Mortti Saarnia

Join us to study the chemical details for industrial metallurgical processes through advanced experimental, analytical and modeling tools.

Daniel Lindberg, head of the research group

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New Academy Projects to be launched in September

New Academy Projects funded by the Academy of Finland involve expertise from all six Aalto schools

Organ type of image with white "veins" and small bacteria dots in red background, original image by Valeria Azovskaya

Towards carbon-neutrality in metal production – new €18 million project to develop solutions for reducing CO2 emissions

Metal processing industry has the greatest greenhouse gas reduction potential of Finland's manufacturing industries. Joint project between companies and universities is a significant step towards carbon-neutral metal production.

Metalls, CMET

Creating a unique professional profile by combining different fields of science

Professor Daniel Lindberg, a geologist and a chemist, encourages his students to study combinations of different subjects and fields of science.

Professori Daniel Lindberg, kuva Mortti Saarnia

Latest publications:

Hydrogen as Carbon-Free Reducing Agent in Non-ferrous Slag Fuming

Desmond Attah-Kyei, Lassi Klemettinen, Radoslaw Michallik, Justin Salminen, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg 2022 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

Utilization of Scrap Metals as Reductants for Improved Ni and Cu Recoveries in Copper Smelting

Katri Avarmaa, Lassi Klemettinen, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg, Jouni Pihlasalo, Hannu Johto, Ari Jokilaakso 2022 Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy

A thermodynamic model for high temperature corrosion applications: The (Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + ZnSO4 + PbSO4) system

Liling Jin, Daniel Lindberg, Yoshihiko Tsuchiyama, Christian Robelin 2022 Chemical Engineering Science

Ash melting behaviour of reed and woody fuels blends

Siim Link, Patrik Yrjas, Daniel Lindberg, Andres Trikkel, Valdek Mikli 2022 Fuel

Characterization of Ash Melting of Reed and Wheat Straw Blend

Siim Link, Patrik Yrjas, Daniel Lindberg, Andres Trikkel 2022 ACS Omega

Phase Equilibria in the Ag–Ge–Bi–Te System and Thermodynamic Properties of the nGeTe•mBi2Te3 (n, m = 1–4) Layered Compounds

Mykola Moroz, Fiseha Tesfaye, Pavlo Demchenko, Myroslava Prokhorenko, Orest Pereviznyk, Bohdan Rudyk, Lyudmyla Soliak, Daniel Lindberg, Oleksandr Reshetnyak, Leena Hupa 2022 TMS 2022 151st Annual Meeting and Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings

Impact of recently discovered sodium calcium silicate solutions on the phase diagrams of relevance for glass-ceramics in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system

Imam Santoso, Markus Riihimäki, David Sibarani, Pekka Taskinen, Leena Hupa, Min Kyu Paek, Daniel Lindberg 2022 Journal of the European Ceramic Society

Critical evaluation of CuSO4-H2O system up to solubility limit, from eutectic point to 373.15 K

David Sibarani, Hannu Sippola, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg 2022 Chemical Engineering Science

Copper in Biomass Fuels and Its Effect on Combustion Processes

Fiseha Tesfaye, Daniel Lindberg, Mykola Moroz, Mikko Hupa, Leena Hupa 2022 REWAS 2022: Energy Technologies and CO2 Management (Volume II)

Thermal Analysis and Optimization of the Phase Diagram of the Cu-Ag Sulfide System

Fiseha Tesfaye, Daniel Lindberg, Dmitry Sukhomlinov, Pekka Taskinen, Leena Hupa 2022 Energies
More information on our research in the Research database.
Research database
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