Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering

Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling

The research and teaching at the Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modeling research group focuses experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic modeling of metallurgical processes, mainly related to extractive pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy from primary and secondary resources.
Aalto University/Metallurgical Thermodynamics and Modelling

Our research areas:

1. Study of chemical reactions, phase equilibria & elemental distribution in existing and new metallurgical processes:

  • Primary ore feeds become leaner and more complex

  • New feeds (E-scrap, WEEE, recycled batteries

2. Development of Process models, calculational tools & thermochemical databases for pyro- and hydrometallurgical processes

3. Study of large industrial processes on a very detailed level through laboratory studies and modeling, Including non-metallurgical processes (e.g. biomass combustion, waste incineration, high-T corrosion)

The Group is responsible for teaching and research in metallurgical thermodynamics. 

The research projects focus on experimental thermodynamics. We utilize experimental techniques, such as equilibration-quenching, EMF measurements, high-temperature furnace treatments to study phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of metallurgical slags, mattes, and alloys.

We also utilize and develop advanced thermodynamic modeling databases and software for modelling and equilibrium calculations in close cooperation with industrial partners within the field of metallurgical engineering. The industrial projects deal with metal-making processes in the areas of liquid and solid phases (e.g. flash smelting, roasting of sulphides, and salts decomposition by the fluidized bed technology).

The Group is establishing National Centre of Thermodynamics, in cooperation with external partners: we collaborate closely also with universities in Finland, the Nordic countries, South Africa, Canada, China and Indonesia.


Ongoing projects:

Finland-based Circular Ecosystem of Battery Metals, BATCircle

Led by Aalto University, the Finland based circular ecosystem of battery metals consortium (BATCircle in short) aims at improving the manufacturing processes of mining industry, metals industry and battery chemicals, and to increase the recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Its goal is to strengthen the cooperation between companies and research organisations in Finland, and to find new business opportunities.

Read more

Symbiosis of metals production and nature, SYMMET

There is currently not enough mining capacity to meet the demand for metals while the use of renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, and electro-mobility is increasing. The Symbiosis of Metals Production and Nature (SYMMET) project’s objective is to find solutions for the sustainability gap caused by the ever-increasing demand for metals.

Read more


Predicting the FLow behavior of ASH mixtures for production of transport biofuels in the circular economy

Professori Daniel Lindberg, kuva Mortti Saarnia

Join us to study the chemical details for industrial metallurgical processes through advanced experimental, analytical and modeling tools.

Daniel Lindberg, head of the research group

Research group members:

Related content:

Professori Daniel Lindberg, kuva Mortti Saarnia

Creating a unique professional profile by combining different fields of science

Professor Daniel Lindberg, a geologist and a chemist, encourages his students to study combinations of different subjects and fields of science.


Latest publications:

Investigation of waste PCB leach residue as a reducing agent in smelting processes

Desmond Attah-Kyei, Guven Akdogan, Christie Dorfling, Johan Zietsman, Daniel Lindberg, Fiseha Tesfaye, Quinn Reynolds 2020 Minerals Engineering

Printed Circuit Board Leached Residue as a Substitute Reducing Agent in Pyrometallurgical Processes

Desmond Attah-Kyei, Guven Akdogan, Daniel K. Lindberg, Christie Dorfling 2020 Minerals, Metals and Materials Series

Equilibrium of Copper Matte and Silica-Saturated Iron Silicate Slags at 1300 °C and PSO2 of 0.5 atm

Min Chen, Katri Avarmaa, Lassi Klemettinen, Junjie Shi, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg, Ari Jokilaakso 2020 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

Behavior of Battery Metals Lithium, Cobalt, Manganese and Lanthanum in Black Copper Smelting

Anna Danczak, Lassi Klemettinen, Matti Kurhila, Pekka Taskinen, Daniel Lindberg, Ari Jokilaakso 2020 Batteries

Thermodynamic Modeling of Ni-C, Co-C, and Ni-Co-C Liquid Alloys Using the Modified Quasichemical Model

Junmo Jeon, Sun-Yong Kwon, Daniel Lindberg, Min Paek 2020 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

Thermodynamic Properties of Layered Tetradymite-like Compounds of the Ag–Ge–Sb–Te System

M. Moroz, F. Tesfaye, P. Demchenko, M. Prokhorenko, D. Lindberg, O. Reshetnyak, L. Hupa 2020 Minerals, Metals and Materials Series

Aluminum-Titanium Complex Deoxidation Equilibria in Fe-Cr-Al-Ti-O Melts

Min Paek, Jung-Mock Jang, Jong-Oh Jo, Lauri Holappa, Jong-Jin Pak 2020 Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

Formation of nitride and oxide inclusions in liquid Fe-Cr-Ti-Al alloys

Min Paek, Kyung-Ho Kim, Daniel Lindberg, Jong-Jin Pak 2020 Steel Research International

Thermodynamic Assessment of Liquid Fe-Ni-C Alloy Using Modified Quasichemical Model

Min Paek, Junmo Jeon, MANAS PALIWAL, ARIJIT BISWAS, Daniel Lindberg, Jong-Jin Pak 2020 JOM
More information on our research in the Research database.
Research database
  • Published:
  • Updated:
URL copied!