Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems

Wood Material Science

The wood material science group, led by Professor Lauri Rautkari, focuses on a variety of subjects ranging from developing thermal modification processes and improving the properties of wooden construction materials to microbiology and chemistry of wood and wood components. The task for this group is to develop new sustainable, environmentally friendly and diverse wood products with enhanced properties.

Our research areas:

  1. Wood-water interactions
  2. Chemical imaging of biomaterials
  3. Wood modification
  4. Wood products and properties
Microscopic image of wood piths
SEM-image of wood pits (Daniela Altgen)

Wood-water interactions

Wood contains polar functional groups that attract water molecules from the surroundings. Absorbed water influences the performance of wood significantly (strength and stiffness, swelling, risk for deterioration by decay fungi). A better understanding of wood-water interactions will thus help in improving the performance of wood in the built environment.  

Our group investigates the principles of how wood interacts with water molecules under different climatic conditions. We have developed several methods to study wood-water interactions in automated sorption balances. Besides traditional sorption isotherm measurements, we also specialize in quantifying accessible sorption sites in automated sorption balances using the deuterium exchange approach. We are also analyzing the link between moisture content changes and structural changes of the wood cell walls at the micro- and nanoscale using state-of-the art characterization tools such as confocal Raman microspectroscopy, or x-ray scattering techniques.  

Close-up of RAMAN imaging device, wood sample image at the background

Chemical imaging of biomaterials

As a natural material, wood and other cellulosic biomaterials often suffer from chemical heterogeneity in spatial dimensions. In our group, we are analyzing chemical heterogeneity at the macroscopic scale (several millimeters or more) and at the microscopic or cellular level (several micrometers or less). This is done by combining different chemical imaging tools, including confocal laser scanning microscopy, confocal Raman mapping and hyperspectral near infrared imaging. We are also focusing on applying chemometrics based on multivariate data analysis, which utilize the entire spectral range measured to find chemical differences in samples.

We have used these chemical imaging methods in several research topics, ranging from the distribution of heartwood extractives in Scots pine wood to the process-related variation in modification degree in acetylated or impregnation-treated woods.  

Small different color wood samples placed on sample holders

Wood modification

Our native wood species typically do not have a sufficient durability in exterior applications and there are growing environmental concerns for the use of biocides for wood protection. An alternative approach is the modification with thermal, chemical, or other methods. The modified wood remains non-toxic during its service life and beyond and shows improved dimensional stability and decay resistance.  

Our group investigates different wood modification treatments, ranging from thermal modification methods and hygrothermal densification to chemical and impregnation-based modification methods or surface treatments using wood charring and biofilm coatings. We investigate the fundamental modes of action in modified woods and develop new strategies to modify our native wood species efficiently. Our laboratories offer a range of analytical tools to study anatomical and chemical changes of the cell wall as well as the resulting wood properties.  

Birch veneer stripes in a plastic cup

Wood products and processes

Wood from sustainably managed forests is an excellent building material thanks to its high strength-to-weight ratio and its ability to store carbon over long periods. There is diversity of wooden products with different properties and applications, which range from solid wood products (i.e. cross-laminated timber and glued laminated timber) to veneer-based products (i.e. plywood and laminated veneer lumber) to particle- and fiber-based products (i.e. particle and fiber boards). Our group investigates the properties and behavior of wood-based materials, such as the distribution of heartwood extractives and its impact on biological durability, anti-bacterial effects of wood surfaces or the humidity-dependence of mechanical properties. We are also cooperating with industrial partners to optimize the manufacturing conditions, or to develop new processing concepts for a more efficient use of wood in the built environment. We have a strong expertise in the evaluating the wood bondability with different adhesive systems or the design of wood products for novel applications.  

Wood science teaching

We offer teaching related to wood material science, wood products and processes as well as life cycle analysis of wood products. We are continuously developing our teaching and recently focusing on high-quality online learning. Online learning enables us to provide teaching to a wider audience, including students from different fields in Aalto, students from other universities, as well as, life-wide-learners. 

Find out more about our courses here.

To support learning we keep on developing new learning materials and videos, such as presented below. Even more videos can be found from this Youtube-channel:

Aalto University - Wood Science

CHEM_Prof Lauri Rautkari

Join us!

We are continuously looking for talented researchers (Aalto students, MSc thesis workers, doctoral students and postdocs).

For further information, contact Prof. Lauri Rautkari ([email protected])

Suvi Kyyrö

Doctoral Researcher

Sultan Md

Visiting Scholar

Pasi Herranen

Doctoral Researcher

Tiina Belt

Visiting Scientist

Faksawat Poohphajai

Doctoral Researcher

Callum Hill

Visiting Scientist
Photo of research group members outdoors
Group photo by Kristina Tsvetkova (2022)

Related content:

New Academy Projects to be launched in September

New Academy Projects funded by the Academy of Finland involve expertise from all six Aalto schools

Organ type of image with white "veins" and small bacteria dots in red background, original image by Valeria Azovskaya

Associate Professor Lauri Rautkari appointed as Deputy Head of the Department at Bio2

Associate Professor Lauri Rautkari has been appointed Deputy Head of the Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems at the School of Chemical Engineering as of 1.8.2023.

Prof Rautkari

Nearly 20 million euros for research

The Academy of Finland funding brings nine new posts as Academy Research Fellow, 15 new Postdoctoral Researchers and 24 new Academy Projects to Aalto University.

Four engineering scientists in pink t-shirts in front of an an engine

Anything but an ordinary greenhouse

A wood-structured windowless greenhouse consumes only half as much energy as a traditional glass greenhouse. In addition to producing food, Pasi Herranen’s invention could generate electricity and excess heat in the future.

Kuvassa Pasi Herranen, Orvokki Ihalainen ja Panu Miettinen

Wood Wonders exhibition showcases climate-friendly building concepts

If all the buildings constructed in Finland each year were made of wood, the amount of wood needed for their construction would grow back in ten hours.

Wood Wonders exhibition at Helsinki airport. Photo: Anne Kinnunen

New minor: Aalto Wood

For students in any field interested in wood!

Cross-cut wood disk on a wooden table

Wood science teaching

Wood science is taught by the Department of Bioproducts and Bioprocesses.

Cross-cut wood trunk in the forest

Latest publications:

Chemical imaging to reveal the resin distribution in impregnation-treated wood at different spatial scales

Michael Altgen, Muhammad Awais, Daniela Altgen, André Klüppel, Gerald Koch, Mikko Mäkelä, Andrea Olbrich, Lauri Rautkari 2023 Materials and Design

Limits in reaching the anhydrous state of wood and cellulose

Michael Altgen, Michael Fröba, Julius Gurr, Andreas Krause, Martin Ohlmeyer, Uta Sazama, Wim Willems, Martin Nopens 2023 Cellulose

Urban vertical farming with a large wind power share and optimised electricity costs

Vahid Arabzadeh, Panu Miettinen, Titta Kotilainen, Pasi Herranen, Alp Karakoc, Matti Kummu, Lauri Rautkari 2023 Applied Energy

Oleogels and reverse emulsions stabilized by acetylated Kraft lignins

Antonio M. Borrero-López, Ling Wang, Haiming Li, Tainise V. Lourençon, Concepción Valencia, José M. Franco, Orlando J. Rojas 2023 International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

Mesostructural changes in cellulose within wood cell wall upon hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C

Tomoko Kuribayashi, Yu Ogawa, Isabelle Morfin, Yuji Matsumoto, Yoshiharu Nishiyama 2023 Cellulose

Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on the resistance of Scots pine sapwood against mould fungi

Suvi Kyyrö, Michael Altgen, Tiina Belt, Hanna Seppäläinen, Christian Brischke, Petra Heinze, Holger Militz, Lauri Rautkari 2023 Holzforschung

Deaggregation of cellulose macrofibrils and its effect on bound water

Thaddeus Maloney, Josphat Phiri, Aleksi Zitting, Antti Paajanen, Paavo Penttilä, Sara Ceccherini 2023 Carbohydrate Polymers

Improving mechanical performance and functionality of birch veneer with mechano-enzymatic microfibrillated cellulose coating

Hannes Orelma, Vesa Kunnari, Akio Yamamoto, Mikko Valkonen, Lauri Rautkari, Antti Korpela 2023 Cellulose

Fungal colonisation on wood surfaces weathered at diverse climatic conditions

Faksawat Poohphajai, Olena Myronycheva, Olov Karlsson, Tiina Belt, Lauri Rautkari, Jakub Sandak, Ana Gubenšek, Polona Zalar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Anna Sandak 2023 Heliyon

Preparation of Fully Bio-based Sound Absorbers from Waste Wood and Pulp Fibers by Foam Forming

Mikko Valkonen, Jose Cucharero Moya, Tapio Lokki, Lauri Rautkari, Tuomas Hänninen 2023 BioResources
More information on our research in the Research database.
Research database
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