Open science and research

Open access journals and books

Scientific journal articles, book chapters, and books can be published immediately as open access. This page provides information and reference material on open access journals and books.
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Photo: Kalle Kataila / Aalto University

Open access journals

Gold open access  

Open access journals are scientific journals that publish all articles open access and do not charge separate subscription fees to readers. Journals that publish all articles immediately as open access are referred to as full open access journals or gold open access journals.

Since open access journals do not charge subscription fees to readers, they often require authors to pay an article processing charge (APC fee).

Funders committed to Plan S initative, such as EU and the Research Council of Finland (former Academy of Finland), encourage to publish in open access journals in projects where the funding call has started after 1 January 2021. In Horizon Europe projects, only APC fees in full open access (gold open access) journals are eligible for reimbursement as direct project costs.

Plan S

Diamond open access 

Diamond open access refers to full open access journals which do not charge fees to either authors or readers.

In 2022, an international Action Plan for Diamond Open Access was prepared, with the aim to support and further develop diamond open access publishing model.  Plan S organisations, including the Research Council of Finland (former Academy of Finland), support this action plan.  

Diamond open access journals are often smaller in terms of publication volume, and many of them are published by research organizations or societies. In 2021, Science Europe published OA Diamond Journals Study.

Publication Forum 15.2.2023: Diamond future of open access

Diamond open access journals used by Aalto's researchers

In 2023, we identified diamond open access journals in which Aalto's researchers have published in 2018-2022. According to the survey, approx. 2 % of Aalto's peer-reviewed scientific journal articles are published in diamond open access journals. The results of the survey are indicative.

Read more: Savolainen, E., & Seitsonen, K. (2023). Diamond Open Access: Researcher’s Best Friend or just a Distant Relative?. The 18th Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing.

Diamond open access publishing and results of the survey were also discussed at the webinar "Current Trends in Academic Publishing: Diamond Open Access Journals, 24.10.2023."

Open access books

It is possible to publish scientific books open access, and individual book chapters can be also be published open access by paying an article processing charge (APC fee).

Oapen: OA Books Toolkit


According to the Aalto University open access publishing principles, most doctoral and master’s theses are openly accessible in the Aalto University repository. For some theses, only abstracts or metadata are openly available.

Doctoral hats in Aalto University Conferment

Publishing doctoral theses

Aalto University has one shared publication series for its doctoral theses.


Reliability of the publication channel – predatory journals

When selecting a publication channel, you should pay attention to the openness and reliability of the publication channel.

The number of questionable publication channels is constantly increasing. So-called predatory journals charge for publishing, but neglect the obligations of the scientific publication, such as rigorous peer review. However, shortcomings in the quality of the editorial work may also be caused by lack of competence or resources. 


How to choose a scientific publication for your research

Publishing in a high-quality publication channel will increase the impact of research.

Open science and research

Contact information

For any questions, please don't hesitate to contact Open Science and ACRIS team ([email protected]).

An image describing the benefits of open access (for example findability, impact, visibility, higher citation rates, compliance with grant rules, value for taxpayers)

Open Access Publishing

Open access ensures that scientific publications are accessible to everyone free of charge.

Open science and research
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