Diesel from wasteflows and other alternatives to fossil fuels
1. Renewable diesel, made from biomasses and waste flows, produces up to 90% less greenhouse gas emissions than normal diesel. It is an excellent fuel, and can be used as is in diesel-powered vehicles.
2. Biogas is an alternative to natural gas, both in heat and electricity production and as a fuel for vehicles. Hydrogen, which can be produced from water using renewable energy, could potentially be added to biogas to further improve its properties.
3. Synthetic fuels, such as methanol, could be produced with renewable energy for wide use in maritime transport, renewable energy storage, and road transport. Synthetic fuels may be on the market within ten years.
4. A more environmentally friendly aviation fuel, biokerosene, is already being produced, though it’s more expensive than crude oil-based kerosene. Large-scale production of biokerosene requires more demand ― and consumers will need to get used to higher prices for air travel.
5. Maritime transport is a large source of greenhouse gas emissions. A bio-oil, produced from various raw materials and other materials such as forest industry by-products, is currently under development and, potentially, could be further refined to produce an economical fuel for maritime transport.
Martti Larmi, Professor of Energy Technology
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