Sakari Kulmala

T105 Chemistry and Materials

Prof. Kulmala has been a pioneer of hot electron electrochemistry and its analytical applications over 30 years. These methods fit very well in the world of Point-of-Need (PoN) and Point-of-Care (PoC) analysis, such as, in immunoassays and other types of bioaffinity assays.

Most of the research has been carried out applying thin insulating film-coated electrodes, such as, aluminum or magnesium metals or a strongly doped degenerate semiconductor coated with ultrathin oxide films of the form Conductor/Insulating film. Lately, his group have been developing printable low-cost electrodes for the same purposes. This has been successful by making organic polymer -based inks that are doped with suitable conductor particles. Some of the developed composite electrodes, e.g. polystyrene-carbon black film on metals, have been already shown to be applicable in real-world bioaffinity assays. The strength of these new developments is the greater tolerance of the thickness and composition variance of the films which makes the new composite electrodes more attractive than the electrode materials utilized previously.

Prof. Kulmala has 10 granted US patents in this field and patents also in other countries within the same patent families in addition to scientific papers.  Prof. Kulmala has been also interested in luminescence methods in general and written review papers on luminescence.

Full researcher profile


  • Analytical Chemistry, Professor


Hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence at cellulose derivatives-based composite electrodes

Päivi Grönroos, Kalle Salminen, Jouni Paltakari, Qiang Zhang, Nan Wei, Esko Kauppinen, Sakari Kulmala 2019

Immunoassays Based on Hot Electron-Induced Electrochemiluminescence at Disposable Cell Chips with Printed Electrodes

Päivi Grönroos, Nur Nur-E-Habiba, Kalle Salminen, Marja Nissinen, Tomi Tuomaala, Kim Miikki, Qiang Zhang, Nan Wei, Esko Kauppinen, Jarkko Eskola, Harri Härmä, Sakari Kulmala 2019

Immunoassay based on hot electron induced electrochemiluminescense on disposable cell chips with printed electrodes

Kalle Salminen, Päivi Grönroos, Esko Kauppinen, Veikko Sariola, Sakari Kulmala 2019


Markku Syrjänpää, Emmiliisa Vuorinen, Sakari Kulmala, Qi Wang, Harri Härmä, Kari Kopra 2019

Phosphorescence and fluorescence of fibrillar cellulose films

Päivi Grönroos, Marko Bessonoff, Kalle Salminen, Jouni Paltakari, Sakari Kulmala 2018

Label-Free Time-Gated Luminescent Detection Method for the Nucleotides with Varying Phosphate Content

Kari Kopra, Tanja Seppälä, Dana Rabara, Maria Abreu-Blanco, Sakari Kulmala, Matthew Holderfield, Harri Härmä 2018

Immunoassay of C-reactive protein by hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence at polystyrene-carbon black composite electrodes

Kalle Salminen, Päivi Grönroos, Jarkko Eskola, Eemi Nieminen, Harri Härmä, Sakari Kulmala 2018